AGROECOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGIES: NEW GENERATION PREPARATIONS IS THE MAIN CONSTITUENT OF ECOLOGICALLY SAFE PLANT CULTIVATION AND ITS ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGES
(PRODUCTION AND COMMERCIAL UNION GROUP OF COMPANIES "RUSSKOYE ZOLOTO" PROJECT «ECOLOGICAL SAFETY AND INNOVATION TECHNOLOGIES» Russia, Moscow 2007. )

Introduction

Scientists’ forecasts regarding changes in the planet climate begin to be confirmed practically. Unprecedented heat at the South and South-East of Europe and fires caused by it threaten to turn out real ecocatastrophe. Territories of Bulgaria, Serbia, Italy, Greece and France are spanned by fire, hundreds of people died, thousands are hospitalized, economical damage is estimated in millions EUR.

Unstable atmospheric motion causes the fact that Arabian and African air invades the northern latitude. It explains anomalously high temperatures in Russia in winter, forty-centigrade heat in Europe, at the same time snow may suddenly fall in Africa. Italian climatologist Guido Viscont, associate professor of atmosphere physics of University in L'Aquila concludes that «desertification threatens Southern areas of Italy, as well as Spain. Some species of plants in Sicily, Sardinia and Pulia will vanish as quickly as climatic changes take place. Some species will just not have enough time for adaptation»

Ecosystem of the Earth began to adapt to new climatic conditions. Plants flowering periods are being shifted. Ecologists’ experiments from Stanford headed by Elsa Cleland confirm that in the upshot the planet will face fundamental reorganization of all biosphere. «In the wild nature, representatives of flora evolved so that to conform to some season exactly, – explains Elsa. – Selection of activity time by a plant determines everything, and any changes are fraught with domino effect»… In other words, rhythms breakdowns also threatens to the animals which in their reproduction and migrations rely on development on some certain species of plants. Principle of biological complementarity will be violated. Experts already make conclusions about presence of sings of environment degradation, that is presence of processes of reduction of ecosystem ability to support life quality.

In case of drought, ground-water table falls sharply. It causes essential damage to the entire ecosystem. The plants which are unable to reach water-bearing bed with their roots, wither and perish. Minor rivers and small lakes dry out, and along the rivers which still exist and supply the remaining storage ponds, sharp land erosion takes place.

Intensive use of pesticides and chemicals leads to material soil pollution which cannot be neutralized completely by natural processes. In most cases degradation of natural environment starts making the society worry only when it sees that as a result of human activity, suddenly producing capacity of ecosystems falls significantly.

Quite a clear example took place in the 40-s: extensive use of two chlorinated hydrocarbons, 4,4- dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dilrine as pesticides, as it was found out, had hard consequences for population of many species of birds. These substances, getting into bird’s organism with food, were accumulated there in high concentrations and caused thinning of eggs shell – it impeded reproduction and caused significant reduction of numbers. Such species as bald eagle and falcons suffered the most.

It is always much simpler and cheaper than to try to restore the already destroyed ecosystems.

ekol1.JPG

AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SAFETY

Specialists are sure that within the nearest decades the world agriculture will face a series of problems. Degradation of soil and water resources will complicate significantly provision of food safety of the planet population number of which will grow steadily.

For some agricultural regions change of climate will pose real hazard, whereas for other ones it will probably be helpful. Its influence on crop capacity and productivity will vary greatly. Extra thermal stress, change of monsoons nature and drier soil in tropics and subtropics, where grain-crops have actually exhausted their thermal steadiness reserve, may cause harvest values almost by one third. It is expected that central continental areas, such as “grain” belt of the USA, large areas in middle latitudes of Asia, the territory of Africa located to the south of Sahara, and part of Australia will be exposed to drier and hotter climatic conditions. Meanwhile, longer seasons, favorable for plants growth and increased rainfall amount may lead to rise of crop capacity in many regions with temperate climate. The data collected on the basis of measurements shows that the season favorable for growth of agricultural plants has already prolonged in United Kingdom, Scandinavia, Europe and North America.

Change of precipitation structure will influence soil water.

The climatic models built on assumption of global warming even by one-two centigrade degree, which may happen within the nearest century allow to forecast that amount of evaporation and precipitation, as well as frequency of showers, will grow. In some regions climate will become damper, in other ones the more intensive hydrological cycle will result in loss of water soil and accelerated erosion. In the districts already exposed to droughts, probably, still longer and severe periods of droughty weather will occur.

Cultivation of wheat, rice, barley, potato will become more vulnerable, however, as well as that of other crops.

In this situation, only effective strategies may promote rise of food safety. Negative influence of climatic change may be restricted by means of change of plant cultivation system and agricultural crops kinds, perfection of agrotechnics, water industry and irrigation systems, and also improvement of land-utilization management and planning system.

Economical loss of agricultural production manufacturers under the present conditions can hardly be estimated exactly, but if we speak regarding Europe, the matter is estimated in tenth of billions EUR merely in plant cultivation.

At that it is important to notice that the most vulnerable is plant cultivation of organic or ecologically clean farming that does not include use of chemical stimulators, pesticides and fertilizers.

The work being performed nowadays in the area of crops protection from climatic changes is mainly positioned in the area of selection of new kinds, genetic modification of agricultural crops and development of new land-reclamation technologies. All of them need significant outlays of time during which the climate changes continue their growth. In some cases degree of ecological safety of plant cultivation products falls.

ekol2.JPG

Purposes and principles of the Project

The main purpose of the Project is creation of complex of agroecological preparations for agriculture taking account of peculiarities of agroecosystems functioning under conditions of man-caused pollution of soil and biotic complexes, water resources, ecological consequences of chemicalization, agricultural radiology on the background of continuous climate change. At that, both direct and numerous indirect consequences of climatic changes for the entire biosphere should be taken into account.

The principles laid in the basis of the Project are founded on understanding of necessity of knowledge transfer execution from scientific works to their practical use in plant cultivation with implementation of the experience already accumulated.

The innovation technology being created should meet the following mandatory requirements:
 meet the strictest requirements of ecological safety;
 be adaptive, that is be effectively applicable at various kinds of soils, in various climatic areas and various kinds of plants;
 be permanently effective;
 be economically efficient.

Strategy of the Project execution

We are sure in necessity of change to adaptive strategy of plant cultivation development, when all the system of agricultural nature management should seamlessly comply with natural laws of biosphere functioning.

The adaptive essence itself of such a strategy predetermines its consistency, multiple variance, dynamics and science linkage, and consequently, also ability to integrate achievements of not only applied but also fundamental knowledge.

The classical intensive plant cultivation is connected with necessity of introduction of large amount of energy resources and agricultural chemicals into ecosystem. Advantages and efficiency of such strategy are obvious, but it functions only for limited time. All-round use of pesticides already led to appearing of more aggressive and virulent races of pathogens. Modern agroecosystems are characterized by extensive use of genetically single-type sorts and hybrids, that leads to sharp reduction of number of cultivated plants species. As a result, dependence of harvest and its quality on climate changes and weather caprices, environment-forming, including environment-protecting and environment-improving functions of cultivated kinds of plants and agroecosystems being weakened.

It is known that the worse and more various soil and climatic conditions are, the lower level of admissible anthropogenic load, man-caused equipment and subvention of plant cultivation is, the more degree due to inadaptability of reduction of amount and quality of harvest, production cost rises, increases danger of pollution and destruction of environment. As a result, destabilization of the branch takes place, change of species set of harmful biological objects to the side of increasing of their injuriousness, and often just destruction of a general agroecosystem. In this connection, addressing to natural biocoenotic regulators, not to chemical and man-caused intensification of agricultural production is more preferable.

STRUCTURE OF THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT

The following entities should and may be engaged in the project:
- scientific organizations;
- scientists and specialists;
- agricultural enterprises;
- public associations and funds.

The suggested project may be executed in organizational and legal area of the 7th framework program of European Union, that determines the most completely the order and rules of international scientific and practical cooperation.

AUTHOR AND INITIATOR OF THE PROJECT

The author and initiator is closed joint-stock company «Russkoye zoloto» (director general - candidate of economy Eugenia Bogatova), which is management company of Production and Commercial Union Group of companies "Russkoye zoloto" (president – Alexander Tarantsev).

For practical execution of the initiated program, «Russkoye zoloto» established subsidiary in 2006, that is limited liability company "Biokhimicheskiye tekhnologii" (director general Vladimir Maltsev).

BEGINNING OF THE PROJECT EXECUTION

Beginning of the PROJECT execution was initiated by invention of agrobiological preparation “Biologically Active Complex «Ecogel»®“ in 2005 by company «Russkoye zoloto».
(Patent application No. 2006140278 dated 15.11.2006)

THE SUCCESS ACHIEVED IN THE PROJECT EXECUTION

We constructed industrial installation for production of agrobiological preparation “Biologically Active Complex «Ecogel». It is based on chitosane lactate (1→4)-2-amino-2-dezoxi-β-D-glucan. In production, technologies of magnetic structuring and enrichment of silver ions are applied.

"Ecogel" became basis for creation of series of modifications – independent preparations purposed for stimulation of immune system of various kinds of plants and application in various climatic areas.

Besides its main function of increasing of plants resistance to diseases and pests, improvement of plants appearance and amount of green mass, preparations based on "Ecogel" cause steady rise of crop capacity of agricultural crops by 20% and more.

Original production technologies in combination with unique properties of the main active substance make the preparations created on the basis of "Ecogel" absolutely environmentally safe.

"Ecogel" was introduced to specialists in the area of agriculture and members of scientific society at the First All-Russian conference "Ecological safety and innovations in plants protection" in February, 2007 (Moscow, Russia).

In 2007. modifications of "Ecogel" passed field test in series of factory-farm enterprises of Russia, including the largest hothouse complexes, and All-Russian scientific and research institute of plants protection in Voronezh. Plants after being treated with "Ecogel" not only withstand successfully to diseases and pests against which chemical protective substances are ineffective, but also bear long deviations of temperature mode and water balance violations.

Efficiency of "Ecogel" modifications in increasing of plants resistibility to negative ecological factors of megapolises and industrial regions found its confirmation in the course of continued tests at objects of green economy of city by scientists and specialists of Academy of municipal economy (Moscow, Russia).

In the final stage, certification test of "Ecogel" modifications at grain crops, sunflower, sugar-beet, decorative flower plants are planned. Tests on vine, corn, technical and garden plants are projected.

At «Day of Russian Field-2007», the largest Russian demonstrative exhibition, our preparation was awarded to «Golden medal» for innovation technologies in plant cultivation.